Master of Saint Veronica
tempera on panel
design area: 40.7 x 25.2 cm 16 x 9 15/16 in
Possibly the Carthusian monastery of Saint Barbara, Cologne.  Richard von Schnitzler [1855-1938], Cologne, by 1917 until at least 1931.  (Pinakos, Inc. [Rudolf Heinemann]); sold 1953 to (M. Knoedler & Co., New York);  purchased 1954 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1961 to NGA.  Although unverified it is possible, as Eisler first suggested, that The Crucifixion was originally located in the Charterhouse of Saint Barbara in Cologne, the city where the Master of Saint Veronica was active as well as the birthplace of Saint Bruno, founder of the Carthusian Order. The Charterhouse in Cologne was a large and important institution that underwent a major building campaign between 1391 and 1405. (see J.J. Merlo, "Kunst und Kunsthandwerk im Karthäuserkloster zu Köln", Annalen des historischen Vereins für den Niederrhein insbesondere die alte Erzdiöcese Köln, 45 (1886): 1-2. See also Paul Clemen, Ludwig Arntz, Hugo Rahtgens, Heinrich Neu, and Hans Vogts, Die Kunstdenkmäler der Stadt Köln, vol. 2, part 3 (Düsseldorf, 1934), 137-162, and Otto Braunsberger, "Die Kölner Kartause. Erinnerungen aus alter Zeit," Stimmen der Zeit. Katholische Monatschrift für das Geistesleben der Gegenwart, 94 (1918): 134-152. If the Gallery's panel were in the Charterhouse, it might have remained there until 1794 when the monastery was dispersed.) Given the Order's emphasis on solitary contemplation and devotion, it would seem likely that the Gallery's panel adorned the cell of a single monk. It is possible that it was originally part of a commission for multiple images, as was the case with the Crucifixions painted by Jean de Beaumetz and his shop for the Charterhouse at Champmol. (Noted by Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian. (Oxford, 1977), 1.  Walter Bombe, "Die Sammlung Dr. Richard von Schnitzler in Cöln." Der Cicerone 9 (1917): 366. Published in Otto Helmut Förster, Die Sammlung Dr. Richard von Schnitzler, Munich, 1931: 21, no. 1, pl. 1. Unless sold by Schnitzler between 1931 and his death in 1938, the painting was inherited by his two daughters, Edith and Eriak von Schröder.  Knoedler stock book no. 10, p. 104, no.A5322, and sales book no. 17, p. 37, M. Knoedler & Co. Records, Getty Research Institute (copies NGA curatorial files). A a pencilled notation indicates that the panel was previously owned by a Dr. Howard in partnership with Mont and Newhouse.