French 15th Century
A Miracle of Saint Benedict
oil on oak
original panel: 94 x 79.4 cm (37 x 31 1/4 in)
Eugene Leopold Garbaty [1885-1966], Berlin and New York, by 1931;  (Paul Drey, New York); sold 1948 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1952 to NGA.  Neither Friedrich Winkler's certificate of 6 February 1931 (Kress collection records in NGA curatorial files) nor Winkler, "Simon Marmion," Pantheon 13 (1934): 70, identifies or locates the painting's owner. However, Grete Ring, A Century of French Painting 1400-1500, London, 1949: 222, no. 193 (who was apparently unaware of the 1948 sale to the Kress Foundation), gives the owner as Garbaty in New York and indicates that the collection was once in Berlin, so it is likely Garbaty was also the owner in the 1930s. His collection was probably housed at the Schloss Altdöbern, a property south of Berlin owned before World War II by the family. According to his obituary (New York Times, 8 September 1966: 47), Garbaty developed one of the leading tobacco businesses in Germany and was an art collector before his Jewish family was forced to flee the country in 1938/1939. He brought some of the collection with him. He lent several paintings to the art exhibition at the 1939 New York World's Fair (and its subsequent U.S. tour), and the dealer Georges Seligmann listed more than a dozen paintings (including A Miracle of Saint Benedict) in a January 1945 report on Garbaty's collection (Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Art, Seligmann Papers, box 247, copy in NGA curatorial files).